IEEE-USA Awards Nomination Deadline Extended to 25 August; Entries Sought to Recognize Service & Achievements of U.S. IEEE Members
WASHINGTON (29 July 2010) — IEEE-USA, seeking to recognize outstanding service and achievements of U.S. IEEE members, has extended the nomination deadline for its 2010 awards to 25 August.
IEEE-USA awards are presented in recognition of professional, technical, entrepreneurial and literary contributions to public awareness and understanding of engineering in the United States. 2010 award recipients will be honored during the 2011 IEEE-USA Annual Meeting in Austin, Texas.
Nominations are sought in the following areas: Robert S. Walleigh Distinguished Contributions to Engineering Professionalism Award; Award for Distinguished Public Service; Citation of Honor; Precollege Education Committee Teacher-Engineer Partnership Award; Entrepreneur Achievement Award for Leadership in Entrepreneurial Spirit; Regional/Divisional Professional Leadership Award; Professional Achievement Award (for individuals and organizations); Harry Diamond Memorial Award; and the Electrotechnology Transfer Award.
In addition, IEEE-USA offers two literary awards: for furthering public understanding of the profession and for advancing engineering professionalism. Nominees for these awards and the public service award do not have to be IEEE members.
For more information and a description of each award, see http://www.ieeeusa.org/volunteers/awards/index.html.
Nomination forms are available at http://www.ieeeusa.org/volunteers/awards/forms.html.
IEEE Green Technologies Conference Seeks Technical Papers
WASHINGTON (29 July 2010) — IEEE Green Technologies Conference organizers are seeking technical papers on topics related to current and emerging renewable energy sources and energy-reduction technologies.
Accepted papers will be presented during the third-annual conference, 14-15 April 2011, at the Hilton Hotel in Baton Rouge, La. They will also be published in a conference proceedings CD and available through the digital library IEEE Xplore (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/guesthome.jsp).
Contributed papers, particularly in the following areas, are solicited:
— Energy generation and storage technologies, including nuclear, wind, solar, water, geothermal,
biomass, energy harvesting and storage
— Energy usage reduction and conservation, including energy management, planning and
forecasting, home and commercial automation, innovative HVAC and lighting
— Architectural and engineering sustainable designs, including strategies for sustainability, performance evaluation, use of green building components and system management
— Environmental, legal, social, economic and political impacts, including emerging standards for
renewable and reduced carbon emission energy sources, safety and technologies for developed and underdeveloped countries
— Smart Grid communication and control, including evolution and integration of renewable and reduced emission energy sources
— Environmental protection, including oil spill prevention and control
PAPER SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS:
To submit a paper, go to http://edas.info, log in and use “GTC’11.” Submissions must describe original work not previously published or currently under review for publication in another conference or journal. Instructions can be found at
(http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs/pubs/confpubcenter/pdfs/samplems.pdf). The paper template is accessible at http://www.ieee.org/web/publications/pubservices/confpub/AuthorTools/conferenceTemplates.html.
Papers must be submitted between 1 September and 1 November. Authors will be notified by 20 January 2011 whether their papers are accepted. For questions regarding paper submissions, contact technical program chairs Dr. Jorge Aravena at firstname.lastname@example.org or Dr. Hsiao-Chun Wu at email@example.com.
Proposals for seminars and special sessions are also welcome and can be sent to Aravena at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The second IEEE Green Technologies Conference was held in Grapevine, Texas, in April. For an overview of the event, see http://www.todaysengineer.org/2010/Jul/Green.asp.
Because of increasing concerns about fossil fuel costs, supplies and emissions, scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs are more closely examining the commercial viability of renewable energy sources. The 2011 conference aims to look at solar, wind, nuclear, geothermal, hydro and biomass technologies, among others, as well as alternative vehicle power sources such as fuel cells, gasoline and liquid natural gas electric hybrids and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
The 2011 IEEE Green Technologies Conference is sponsored by IEEE Region 5, the IEEE Baton Rouge Section and IEEE-USA, and supported by Louisiana State University and the city of Baton Rouge. For more information, see http://www.ieeegreentech.org.
Investigations into Unintended Acceleration Should Include Engineers
WASHINGTON (23 July 2010) — Because of the electronic complexity of modern passenger vehicles, investigations into sudden, unintended acceleration should draw upon the expertise of a broad array of electrical, electronics and software engineers and computer professionals.
A February 2009 IEEE Spectrum article, “This Car Runs on Code,” said that a modern premium-class automobile “probably contains close to 100 million lines of software code,” and “all that software executes on 70 to 100 microprocessor-based electronic control units networked throughout the body of your car.” By comparison, Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner “requires about 6.5 million lines of code to operate its avionics and onboard support systems.”
“The skilled engineers and technical professionals who design and evaluate modern vehicle systems bring not only knowledge and expertise from their specific disciplines, but also their experience and lessons learned from integrating technology into these vehicles,” IEEE-USA President Evelyn Hirt said. “It goes beyond just having experience in a technology to understanding the complexity and application of that technology in its specific operating environment. This is frequently what is needed to assess why systems sometimes fail.”
Faulty electronic throttle control systems have been cited as a possible cause of unintended vehicle acceleration incidents that have resulted in death and injury. The Toyota Motor Corp., the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) National Research Council are each conducting separate studies into unintended acceleration.
NHTSA’s study has enlisted “NASA engineers with expertise in areas such as computer controlled electronic systems, electromagnetic interference and software integrity.” NAS’ 12-member panel has, according to The Washington Post, three electronics experts and is planning to add three more. Its study will review unintended acceleration across all automotive manufacturers and investigate “electronic vehicle controls, human error, mechanical failure and interference with accelerator systems.”
“There is no question that any effort to investigate these incidents will clearly benefit by including engineers with a firm grasp of the complex systems threaded through today’s automobiles,” said Doug Taggart, chair of the IEEE-USA Committee on Transportation and Aerospace Policy.
In a 6 April letter to Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood, IEEE-USA encouraged NHTSA to increase its number of electrical, electronics, computer and software engineers “to allow the agency perform the vital task of ensuring vehicle safety.” On 24 May, NHTSA replied that it is “in the process of hiring a large number of engineers in response to the increased activities of the Agency.”
“This Car Runs on Code”: http://spectrum.ieee.org/green-tech/advanced-cars/this-car-runs-on-code
Toyota’s North American Quality Advisory Panel: http://pressroom.toyota.com/pr/tms/leading-safety-and-quality-experts-157685.aspx
NHTSA announcing two investigations into unintended acceleration: http://www.nhtsa.gov/PR/DOT-54-10
IEEE-USA’s 6 April letter to Ray LaHood: http://www.ieeeusa.org/policy/policy/2010/040610.pdf
NHTSA’s response to IEEE-USA letter: http://www.ieeeusa.org/policy/policy/2010/NHTSAReply.PDF
White House Cybersecurity Coordinator, Department of Homeland Security Officials Headline Speakers at IEEE Homeland Security Conference
WASHINGTON (22 July 2010) — Howard A. Schmidt, national cybersecurity coordinator and special assistant to the U.S. president, will be a featured speaker at the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST 10) in November.
Dr. Starnes E. Walker and Christopher Doyle of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science & Technology Directorate (DHS S&T) will join Schmidt as featured speakers.
HST 10 will be held at the Westin Waltham Boston in Waltham, Mass., USA, 8-10 November 2010. It will bring together global science and technology thought leaders to foster homeland security technology innovation. The conference features a technical advisory committee of leading S&T experts from academia, national laboratories, federally funded research and development centers, the federal government and industry.
The event will showcase selected technical papers highlighting emerging technologies in:
*Land and maritime border security
*Counter-WMD techniques and critical infrastructure and key resources physical security
*Attack and disaster preparation, recovery and response
HST 10 is produced by IEEE with technical support from DHS S&T and the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. IEEE-USA is providing organizational support.
More than 450 people attended the 2009 conference, including representatives from at least 10 foreign countries. Raytheon is the event platinum corporate sponsor. For more information, visit www.ieee-hst.org or contact Robert Alongi at email@example.com or +1 781-245-5405.
IEEE-USA IN ACTION** IEEE-USA’s Latest Salary Survey & Consultants Fee Survey Profile Available as E-Books; Two Government Documents Free to IEEE Members
WASHINGTON (27 May 2010) — If you’re an electrotechnology professional and you’d like to know how your salary and benefits, or consultants fees, compare to your peers, two new publications from IEEE-USA E-Books can help.
Here’s a closer look at each one:
The 2009 IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefits Survey is the 22nd compensation study IEEE-USA has published to provide timely information on current and long-term trends related to the income, salary and benefits of U.S. IEEE members. This information is critical for accurate understanding of compensation practices in the profession, including how those practices affect individual engineers. You can download the 2009 IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefit Survey for the IEEE member price: $75.00. Nonmember Price is $99.00.
Members who responded to the salary survey receive five free uses of the IEEE-USA Salary Calculator, which uses data from the report. Go to http://salaryapp.ieeeusa.org/rt, log in and select the salary calculator tab.
As a consultant is preparing a proposal or negotiating a contract, one of the primary concerns is deciding how much to charge. To establish a fixed price or a fee that is both competitive and fair, the consultant needs to know what other consultants working in similar fields charge. In response to this need, the Alliance of IEEE Consultants Networks (AICN) conducts national fee surveys of its members. This report on the IEEE-USA 2009 Consultants Fee Survey provides the profile of typical self-employed and independent technical consultants, including their education, experience, business practices, median earnings and hourly fee. You can download the 2009 Profile of IEEE Consultants for the IEEE member price: $9.95. Nonmember Price is $19.95.
Members who responded to the consultants fee survey can receive a free copy of the report by contacting Helen Hall at firstname.lastname@example.org.
In addition, two government documents, Science and Engineering Indicators and Report and Recommendations from the Scholarly Publishing Roundtable are available for free.
Developed by the National Science Board and published in January, the 19th edition of Science and Engineering Indicators is designed to provide a broad base of quantitative information about U.S. science, engineering and technology for use by policymakers, researchers and the general public.
The Report and Recommendations from the Scholarly Publishing Roundtable comes from the House Science and Technology Committee, in coordination with the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, which convened a roundtable to examine the current state of scholarly publishing and develop consensus recommendations for expanding public access to journal articles arising from research funded by U.S. government agencies. Government documents are free to IEEE members.
You can access these and other IEEE-USA E-Books at www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks.
July 9, 2010
Income of Electrotechnology, IT Professionals Shows Twofold Percentage Increase, IEEE-USA Salary Survey Reveals
WASHINGTON (8 July 2010) — Median income for electrotechnology and information technology professionals showed a twofold percentage increase from the previous year, according to the latest IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefit Survey.
Median incomes from primary sources — base pay plus commissions, bonuses and net self-employment income — for U.S. IEEE members working full-time in their primary area of technical competence went from $110,610 in the 2007 tax year to $116,000 in 2008. The 4.9 percent increase more than doubled the 2.4 percent rise from the previous survey.
Of the 12,119 U.S. IEEE members who participated in the Internet-based survey, 10,177 were employed full-time in their primary area of technical competence, or job specialty. The five largest job specialties were — in descending order — computers, energy and power engineering, circuits and devices, communications technology and systems and control.
The IEEE-USA Salary & Fringe Benefit Survey, 2009 Edition, is the 22nd compensation survey the organization has conducted since the first one in 1972. The results are valuable to employers seeking to know what type of compensation package they should put together to attract and retain electrotechnology and IT professionals, and to employees seeking to benchmark their salary and benefits.
The 82-page survey is available electronically at http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks/.
IEEE members who responded to the salary survey receive five free uses of the IEEE-USA Salary Calculator, which uses data from the report. Go to http://salaryapp.ieeeusa.org/rt , log in and select the salary calculator tab.
IEEE-USA just completed its 2010 survey with a record 14,724 responses. That report will be released in September.
FOX 5 Reporter, NAE Program Officer to Receive IEEE-USA Engineering Journalism Awards
WASHINGTON (6 July 2010) — IEEE-USA will honor two Washington journalists who have added to greater public understanding of the contributions of engineers and computer professionals to society Wednesday.
Holly Morris, a live reporter for Washington’s FOX 5 Morning News; and Randy Atkins, senior program officer for media/public relations at the National Academy of Engineering, will share the IEEE-USA Award for Literary Contributions Furthering Public Understanding of the Profession. Their awards include a $1,500 honorarium.
Morris, who has a degree in civil and environmental engineering, will be recognized for her live coverage of last year’s National Engineers Week Future City Competition National Finals. Morris has served as co-emcee of the February 2009 and 2010 events and provided reports for FOX 5 television and Internet viewers.
To see Morris’ reports highlighting Discover Engineering Family Day, go to http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/eweek/default.asp.
Atkins is being honored for his “Engineering Innovation Podcast and Radio Series” on Washington’s WTOP FM and Federal News Radio, WFED AM. These one-minute weekly radio features highlight engineering innovations and stories that add technical context to issues in the news.
Atkins’ stories, archived to 2003, are accessible at http://www.nae.edu/radio.
The awards will be presented during a luncheon for sci-tech journalists at Washington’s Restaurant Nora.
IEEE-USA is accepting nominations for both of its engineering journalism awards, including one furthering engineering professionalism, until 31 July. See http://www.ieeeusa.org/volunteers/awards/forms.html.
IEEE-USA Pleased that Supreme Court’s Ruling Preserves Software Patents
WASHINGTON (29 June 2010) — The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 Monday that a new method of doing business can be patented, and that the ability to patent software should not be limited.
In Bilski v. Kappos, the high court ruled that passing the “machine or transformation” test is not the sole test for determining whether a business process is patentable. Abstract ideas, however, cannot be patented.
IEEE-USA was party to an amici curiae brief filed with the court.
“We are generally pleased that the Supreme Court did not introduce rules that would limit the scope of ideas available for patent protection in our current information age,” IEEE-USA Intellectual Property Committee Chair Keith Grzelak said. “We are disappointed, however, that the court’s decision did not provide a clearer standard for determination of patentability. The court cited a trilogy of cases that basically say patents should not be granted for abstract ideas. By ruling that Bilski’s business method was too abstract, the Supreme Court essentially provided lower federal courts a you’ll-know-it-when-you-see-it legal standard to follow.
“Applicants attempting to protect business methods will now be left to guess what is and is not abstract. Inconsistent determination by patent examiners and courts could lead to years of costly litigation, something we warned against in our brief.”
Bernard Bilksi and Rand Warsaw, petitioners in the case, attempted in 1997 to patent a hedging system to protect consumers and utilities from major swings in energy prices and demand. The U.S. Patent Office denied the application and the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the decision. Associate Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing for the majority, called Bilski and Warsaw’s system an “unpatentable abstract idea.”
IEEE-USA seeks to ensure that U.S. patent and copyright law promotes the progress of science and the useful arts consistent with the principles set forth by our nation’s founders.
To see the amici curiae brief that University of Utah Professor of Computer Science Lee Hollaar and IEEE-USA and filed in this case, see http://www.ieeeusa.org/policy/POLICY/2009/090109.pdf.
**IEEE-USA IN ACTION** New E-Book Helps Engineers Strategize, Prepare and Plan Effective Technical Presentations
WASHINGTON (28 June 2010) — You’ve got a great idea for a new product or service. But unless you can convince your executives and potential clients of your idea’s merits, it’s not going to go anywhere.
Technical Presentations Book 1: Strategy — Preparation & Planning, a new release from IEEE-USA E-Books, is the first in a four-part series to help engineers prepare, write and deliver effective technical presentations.
Author Nita K. Patel, a practicing systems/software engineer, active IEEE volunteer and Distinguished Toastmaster, shares her expertise in delivering technical presentations and includes plenty of strategizing, preparing and planning examples.
“A technical expert must know and understand technical facts, but to ensure that others interpret that complex data in the same way, the facts must be presented through clear, concise and correct speech,” Patel writes. “If your audience does not understand, they will not accept your idea.”
You can purchase your copy of Technical Presentations Book 1: Strategy — Preparation & Planning at www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks for the IEEE member price: $9.95. Nonmember price is $19.95.
IEEE members can purchase other IEEE-USA E-Books at deeply discounted member prices — and download some free e-books at www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks.
June 23, 2010
Second of Five-Part IEEE-USA Webinar Series on Financing for Entrepreneurs Continues Thursday
WASHINGTON (23 June 2010) — Dr. Dileep Rao’s IEEE-USA webinar series for future and seasoned entrepreneurs continues Thursday. Focusing on strategies that minimize the need for venture capital, Rao will present, “From Financing Needs to the Right Financial Structure” from 2 to 3 p.m. EDT.
Webinar registrants will receive a copy of Rao’s book, “Bootstrap to Billions.” In it, he shows entrepreneurs and managers of entrepreneurial companies how many large businesses have used alternative financing options to grow. He says that 80 percent of them never received venture capital.
Rao, a financial adviser, adjunct professor and author, has financed more than 450 start-ups, growing businesses and real estate projects. He advises governments, Fortune 1000 corporations, development finance institutions and entrepreneurs on business development and financing.
Rao has taught courses in MBA and executive MBA programs in the United States, Europe and Asia. He is a senior lecturer at the University of Minnesota’s Carlson School of Management and was recognized three times as its Outstanding MBA Teacher.
Rao is an entrepreneurial finance columnist for Forbes.com and authored “Handbook of Business Finance & Capital Sources” and “Business Financing: 25 Keys to Raising Money.” He has a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering, a master’s in industrial engineering and a Ph.D. in business administration.
The complete webinar series is:
20 May — “Link Your Business Plan to Your Financing Needs”
24 June — “From Financing Needs to the Right Financial Structure”
22 July — “Fine-Tuning Financing: Find the Right Sources/Instruments”
19 August — “Reduce the Agony: Learn How to Find Financing”
16 September — “After the Financing: Better Decisions & Control”
The cost for the remaining four presentations is $109 for IEEE members and $205 for nonmembers. For an individual webinar, the cost is $69 for members and $99 for nonmembers. For more information and to register, go to http://www.ieeeusa.org/careers/webinars/2010/Bootstrap-to-Billions.html
IEEE-USA Engineering Mass Media Fellow Begins Reporting on Sci-Tech at Voice of America in Washington
WASHINGTON (18 June 2010) — IEEE-USA Engineering Mass Media Fellow Smitha Raghunathan has begun her 10-week media internship preparing news stories on science, engineering and technology in Washington at the Voice of America.
Raghunathan has a bachelor of science degree in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and is currently pursuing her master’s degree in biomedical engineering from the Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences. She served this past year as social chair of Wake Forest’s IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society student branch.
Raghunathan has “a natural gift for communication and social interaction,” wrote Dr. Jessica Sparks, an assistant professor at Virginia Tech-Wake Forest, in her recommendation letter for her student’s Mass Media Fellow application.
Raghunathan has spoken on her graduate research into liver tissue modeling as a volunteer at high schools near Winston-Salem, N.C. She also volunteers at an animal adoption and rescue organization.
Since 2000, 13 U.S. IEEE undergraduate and graduate students have served as IEEE-USA Mass Media Fellows, helping journalists in print and broadcast fields communicate authoritatively to the public about science, engineering and technology.
IEEE-USA is the only engineering organization in the Mass Media Fellows program, which is administered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). In 2009, 12 AAAS Fellows produced more than 285 original sci-tech stories in print and broadcast media.
For more information on IEEE-USA involvement, go to http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/massmedia.asp.
June 9, 2010
IEEE-USA President Urges Senate to Pass Innovation Legislation
WASHINGTON (9 June 2010) — IEEE-USA President Evelyn Hirt urges the Senate to pass the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010. The House of Representatives passed the bill on May 28.
The legislation, similar to the America COMPETES Act that was signed into law in 2007, invests in science, education, innovation and competitiveness. It is designed to help the United States maintain its global leadership in science and technology and create new jobs.
“This bill will help create a new generation of innovators, ensure sustained commitment to research and development, strengthen our energy independence, improve math and science education and fuel economic development,” Hirt said. “In addition, programs will be established or extended to strengthen U.S. manufacturers.”
Highlights of the bill include:
* Keeps basic research programs on a path to doubling authorized funding levels over 10 years at the Department of Energy Office of Science, the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
* Reauthorizes the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy, which supports high-risk, high-reward energy technology development
* Authorizes Energy Innovation Hubs to advance promising areas of energy science and engineering from early-stage research to the point where it can be delivered to the private sector
* Supports local efforts to form Regional Innovation Clusters to strengthen regional economies
* Creates Innovative Technology Federal Loan Guarantees to help small and mid-size manufacturers receive capital to become more efficient and stay competitive
* Assists industry by ensuring that the Manufacturing Extension Partnership program at NIST provides companies with services and access to resources that enhance growth, improve productivity and expand capacity
* Reorganizes NIST laboratories to reflect the multidisciplinary nature of technology and better meet the needs of industry
* Reauthorizes the Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to encourage science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) majors and professionals to become K-12 math and science teachers
The America COMPETES Reauthorization Act passed the House by a vote of 262 to 150. House Science and Technology Committee Chairman Bart Gordon (D-Tenn.) sponsored the bill, which had 101 cosponsors.
“If we are to reverse the trend of the last twenty years, where our country’s technology edge in the world has diminished, we must make the investments necessary today,” Gordon said in a statement. “The path is simple. Research and education lead to innovation. Innovation leads to economic development and good paying jobs and the revenue to pay for more research. And as private firms under-invest in research and development because the returns are too far off in the future, there is a clear and necessary role of government to help our nation keep pace with the rest of the world.”
Rep. Judy Biggert (R-Ill.), co-chair of the Congressional Research and Development Caucus, characterized the bill as “an investment in scientific advancement with proven economic returns for many years to come.”
IEEE-USA was one of more than 750 organizations to endorse the legislation.
IEEE-USA advances the public good and promotes the careers and public policy interests of more than 210,000 engineers, scientists and allied professionals who are U.S. members of IEEE. http://www.ieeeusa.org
May 14, 2010
2010 IEEE President and CEO Moshe Kam presented the IEEE Presidents’ Scholarship Thursday evening during the annual Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). The ISEF, the world’s largest international pre-college science competition, was held was held in San Jose, CA, from May 9-14. James Sinclair Popper an 18-year old senior of Marlborough College, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom won the Scholarship for his CookerSmart Project. Students must compete in the Intel ISEF competitions beginning at the state/local level and advance onto the international competition, held annually in May.
The IEEE Foundation established the IEEE Presidents’ Scholarship Fund in order to accept contributions that can support the award. Contributions made to the IEEE Presidents’ Scholarship provide the financial resources students need to pursue their engineering dreams.
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Ultrasound Pioneer to Receive Highest Award in Engineering Profession; Among Six Honored with AAES National Engineering Awards
WASHINGTON (19 April 2010) — Ultrasound pioneer Gerald J. Posakony will be honored with the John Fritz Medal — the highest award in the engineering profession — tonight by the American Association of Engineering Societies (AAES).Posakony’s pioneering contributions to the fields of ultrasonics, medical diagnostic ultrasound and nondestructive evaluation technologies will be recognized during AAES’ 31st annual awards ceremony at the Great Hall of the National Academy of Engineering. He is one of six engineers being honored.Posakony’s work on medical ultrasound technology began in the early 1950s when he was the lead engineer on an ultrasonic diagnostic imaging system for investigating human disease processes. His efforts, particularly in the development of ultrasonic transducers — the “eyes” of an ultrasound system — have contributed greatly to modern ultrasound technology. The medical imaging of muscles, tendons and internal organs is used to gauge their size and structure and determine if pathological lesions are present. Obstetric sonography is important in monitoring the health of a pregnant woman and her unborn baby. Continue reading